The image sensor is an electronic device that converts an optical image into an electronic signal. The uses digital cameras and imaging devices to convert the light received on the camera or imaging device lens into a digital image.
There are two types of image sensors
● Charged coupled device (CCD)
● Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)
Charged coupled device
It is an integrated circuit containing an array of linked or coupled capacitors. In the external control of the circuit, each capacitor can transfer its electric charge to a neighboring capacitor. These sensors are a major technology used in digital imaging.
The movement of devices is an electrical charge usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated for example conversion into a digital value.
It is an integrated circuit etched onto a silicon surface forming light-sensitive elements called pixels. The photons incident on this surface generates a charge that can be read by electronics and turned into a digital copy of the light patterns falling on the device.
The complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
In the CMOS sensor, the charge from the photosensitive pixel is converted to a voltage at the pixel site and the signal is multiplexed by row and column to the multiple on-chip digitals to analog converters. CMOS is a digital device.
CMOS is of lower quality, lower resolution, and lower sensitivity. This sensor is not improving to the point where they reach near parity with CCD devices in some applications. CMOS cameras have less expensive and good battery life.