Tokai University, Toyohashi University of Technology, Chubu University, and Denso Corp., with support from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), have succeeded in developing a biosensor based on a new mechanism and detecting SARS-CoV-2. The group will accelerate the development toward practical application to contribute to early diagnosis of infectious diseases, which is a key factor in limiting virus’ spread.
To prevent the medical system from being overwhelmed due to viral infectious diseases, it is essential to prevent the spread of viruses by early diagnosis and isolation. At present, PCR tests and antigen tests are used for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. However, these tests cannot evaluate “virus infectivity,” which indicates the power of the detected virus to infect. PCR tests are characterized by its high virus detection sensitivity, but effort of sample pretreatment process imposes a high workload on medical professionals. Meanwhile, antigen tests are simple, but the detection accuracy varies. There has been growing demand for a high-sensitivity and simple detection method to evaluate viral infectiousness.
The universities and Denso have been developing a biosensor for clinical testing equipment to enable high sensitive and quick quantitative detection of viral infectivity. Unlike PCR tests and antigen tests, the biosensor detects the spike protein on the virus surface, which triggers infection, by using a semiconductor sensor and aptamer. The group has succeeded in developing highly sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 by using this technique for the first time in the world.
The semiconductor sensor can quantitatively measure the viral load by using electrical signals. Thus, it is expected to be used to determine the status of infection and confirm the efficacy of treatment with high accuracy. An aptamer is small in size and binds selectively to various types of protein. It is also easy to design and can be mass-produced quickly, and so the aptamers can be used to detect unknown viruses.
The goal of the development of the biosensor is to determine the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and offer novel tests that have virus detection sensitivity equivalent to that of PCR tests and the simplicity of antigen tests. The group will enhance the basic technology and accelerate the development toward practical application.
The universities and Denso remain committed to preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection by harnessing the technologies that have been refined through the project.