- In this modern era of technology, there is a tremendous craze and demand for use of sensors in automobiles for the ease of the users by keeping track of the performance of the vehicle.
- Different types of sensors used in automobiles are
- Automotive Humidity Sensor
- Automotive Parking Sensor
- Automotive Rain Sensor
- Automotive Reverse Sensor
- Coolant sensor
- Engine Speed sensor
- Fuel Temperature sensor
- Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor
- Mass Air Flow sensor
- Oxygen sensor
1. Automotive Humidity Sensor
- The relative humidity (RH) of the air is sensed, measured, and reported by a humidity sensor, which also establishes how much water vapor is present in a gas mixture (air) or a pure gas. A process of water adsorption and desorption is connected to humidity sensing.
- Automotive Humidity sensors are the special type that by controlling the humidity levels within your car, avoids misting up the windows, and improve comfort.
2. Automotive Parking Sensor
- Parking sensors often referred to as proximity sensors, are gadgets that are mounted on a car’s bumpers to help the driver during parking.
- They determine how close an object is getting—either from the front or the back—and warn the driver if they get too close. The sensors often produce a beeping tone that increases in speed and frequency as the object moves closer.
- Ultrasonic and electromagnetic parking sensors are the two types currently available on the market, and while they both perform the same function, they do so in distinct ways.
3. Automotive Rain Sensor
- A switching device that is activated by rain is known as a rain sensor or rain switch.
- To make touch with the windshield, the rain sensor is situated next to the rearview mirror. To conceal the rain sensor, a small part of the windshield has been darkened. There is a tiny view opening that is not darkened, though, and it is through this port that the sensor can detect rain.
- The complete internal reflection theory underlies the operation of the rain sensor. Infrared radiation is used in this method. The sensor within the car projects an infrared light at a 45-degree angle on a clear region of the windscreen. Rain causes the light to scatter and less light is reflected in the sensor because of the wet glass. The car’s wiping mechanism is turned on automatically to begin the drying process when the amount of light reflected drops to a level defined by the sensor’s software.
4. Automotive Reverse Sensor
- In essence, they function as proximity sensors that sound an alarm to the driver when the car approaches an item too closely. These sensors have been in existence for some time. They are often positioned on the back bumper to provide reverse assistance.
5. Coolant Sensor
- The temperature of the coolant/antifreeze mixture in the cooling system is measured by a coolant temperature sensor, also known as an ECT sensor or an ECTS (engine coolant temperature sensor), which provides information on how much heat the engine is emitting.
- To ensure that the engine is operating at the ideal temperature, the sensor continuously monitors the coolant temperature in conjunction with the vehicle’s ECU.
6. Engine Speed Sensor
- The most important sensor in the engine management system is the engine speed sensor. This sensor, along with the trigger wheel, determines the crankshaft position in addition to speed. A camshaft phase sensor, in addition to a crankshaft position sensor, can be used.
- A speed sensor is typically mounted on the side of a wheel or traction motor axle and driven by a pin screwed into the axle.
- The variable reluctance magnetic sensing principle is used by the speed sensor, in which a cylindrical permanent magnetic core with a coil wire wound around it, mounted on the stationary hub carrier, axle casing, or back plate generates a magnetic field (flux) that overlaps the rotating exciter ring.
7. Fuel Temperature Sensor
- The Thermometrics Fuel Temperature Sensor (FTS) is intended to measure the temperature of a vehicle’s fuel and relay this information to the engine control unit, which can then optimize the air-to-fuel mix ratio based on the fuel temperature of the intake air temperature.
- Assume the fuel temperature sensor detects a rise in fuel temperature. This means the hot fuel has become less dense. The stoichiometric amount of fuel required would not be sent in if the engine continued to take in fuel at the same cold fuel volume flow rate. The fuel-air mixture would be leaner as a result. Leaner mixtures result in less power and higher cylinder temperatures, which increases emissions.
- The sensors typically operate in a closed feedback loop, regulating fuel injection based on emissions requirements. As a result, they aid in maintaining a consistent air-fuel mixture.
8. Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor
- The Manifold Pressure Sensor is used in the electronic control system of an engine. Pressure sensor engines are typically fuel injected. The sensor transmits real-time manifold pressure data to the engine’s electronic control unit.
- The data is used to calculate air density and the air mass flow rate of the engine, which determines the required fuel delivery for perfect combustion. To detect intake airflow, a fuel-injected engine may use a MAF sensor, a Pressure sensor, or both.
9. Mass Air Flow Sensor
- The Mass Air Flow Sensor (MAF) is a critical component of your vehicle’s electronic fuel injection system. It is installed between the air filter and the engine’s intake manifold.
- A small electrically heated wire is used in a hot-wire mass air flow sensor (hot wire). A temperature sensor installed near the hot wire measures the temperature of the surrounding air.
- Because a small amount of air flows around the hot wire while the engine is idling, a very low electric current is required to keep the wire hot. Toyota Mass Air Flow Sensor (MAF)Mass air flow sensor Toyota (MAF). The throttle opens when you press the gas pedal, allowing more air to flow over the hot wire. The moving air cools the wire. The greater the flow of air over the wire, the greater the electrical current required to keep it hot. The amount of airflow determines the amount of electric current. Inside the air flow sensor, a small electronic chip converts the electric current into a digital signal that is sent to the engine computer (PCM).
- The PCM calculates how much fuel to inject based on the airflow signal. The goal is to maintain an optimal air/fuel ratio.
10. Oxygen Sensor
- Electrochemical oxygen sensors are primarily used to measure the amount of oxygen in the air. They monitor a chemical reaction within the sensor that generates an electrical output proportional to the level of oxygen.
- Because electrochemical sensors generate a current, they can be self-powered, making them useful for measuring oxygen gas and battery-powered underwater diving, as well as hand-held personal safety devices. Breathalyzers, respiratory sensors, and blood glucose sensors are a few examples.
- O2 sensors aid in the regulation of your car engine’s air-fuel ratio. An ignition of air and fuel causes each explosion in your car’s combustion chambers. When the air-to-fuel ratio in those chambers remains optimal, your car will run and idle perfectly. When there is too much fuel taken in, the system is running “rich,” and your car’s performance suffers. The same thing happens when there is insufficient fuel intake, also known as running “lean.”