- It is used to improve power factor, and therefore power quality.
- The power factor correction is used to reduce the load on the electrical distribution system, increase energy efficiency, and reduces electricity costs.
- Power factor correction also chance to decrease the instability and failure of equipment.
- This is obtained with the connection of capacitors which produce reactive energy in opposition to the energy absorbed by loads such as motors, locally close to the load.
- Power factor correction improves the power factor from the point where the reactive power source is connected, preventing the unnecessary circulation of current in the network.
- Power quality is essential for efficient equipment operation, and the power factor contributes to this.
- It is the measure of how efficiently incoming power is used in an electrical installation. It is the ratio of active to apparent power, when.
- Active Power (P) = the power needed for useful work such as turning a lathe, providing light or pumping water, expressed in Watt or Kilowatt (kW)
- Reactive Power (Q) = a measure of the stored energy reflected the source which does not do any useful work, expressed in var or Kilovar (kVAR)
- Apparent Power (S) = the vector sum of active and reactive power, expressed in Volt Amperes or Kilovolt Amperes (kVA)
- Poor power factor (for example, less than 95%) results in more current being required for the same amount of work
The Benefits of Power Factor Correction
1) Savings on the Electricity Bill
- Power factor correction eliminates penalties on reactive energy, decreases demand on kVA, and reduces power losses generated in the transformers and conductors of the installation.
2) Increased Available Power
- Fitting PFC equipment on the low voltage side increases the power available at the secondary of an MV/LV transformer. A high power factor optimizes an electrical installation by allowing better use of the components.
3) Reduced Installation Size
- Installing PFC equipment allows conductor cross-section to be reduced, as less current is absorbed by the compensated installation for the same active power.
4) Reduced Voltage Drops
- Installing capacitors allows voltage drops to be reduced upstream of the point where the PFC device is connected, therefore preventing overloading of the network and reducing harmonics.
Applications of Power Factor Correction
- Without power factor correction, the load draws a high magnitude current from the source. It increases the losses and cost of electric energy. PFC equipment tries to make current and voltage waveforms in phase. This will increase the efficiency of the system.
- It is used in the transmission network, a high-power factor is necessary. Due to the high-power factor, the losses of the transmission line are decreased and improve voltage regulation.
- The induction motor is widely used equipment in industries. To avoid overheating and improve the efficiency of a motor, the capacitors are used to mitigate the effect of reactive power.
- PFC equipment reduces the heat generation in cables, switchgear, alternator, transformers, etc.
- Due to the high efficiency of the network, we need to generate less energy. Which reduces carbon emissions into the atmosphere.
- Voltage drop is considerably reduced by using PFC equipment with the system.