- Power factor is the ratio of true power to the total power (apparent power) and it is denoted by the symbol cos ɸ.
- We are using this power to power up our appliances. We used to receive this power through substations using the distribution line at home and offices. We can say that a power which is being utilized for doing some work.
- It is fraction of the total power which is being supplied to the devices so we also called is reactive power.
- This reactive power does not generating some useful work but still it is required to generate the magnetic flux.
- In this we have a two component like reactive power and true power. The vector sum of this true power and reactive power is known as apparent power or the total power.
- Generally the true power is being denoted by the symbol P, the reactive power denoted by the symbol Q and this apparent power denoted by the symbol S.
- The range of the power factor will be -1 to 1. So whenever we have the inductive load in the pf the value will be 0 to 1 and whenever we have capacitive reactance then value of this pf will be -1 to .
- So whenever we have an inductive load the pf is known as lagging pf because in this currents lags the voltage and while in capacitive load the pf is known as leading pf were the currents leads the voltage.
- So from all this we will understood the true power, reactive power apparent power, leading and the lagging.

**Let us understand the significance of the power factor in electrical**

- If we have purely resistive elements the entire power which is being drawn from the supply will be utilized for generating the useful work so for any work the pf should be as close to unity.
- Sometimes we will receive the less amount of voltage at our homes and offices it basically dur to additional amount of burden on the power supplier so whenever we have that poor power supply the supplier will charge for the poor pf which is also known as power factor penalty.
- So according all of this our electricity bill will be increase so that’s why in industry u will find that the more importance is being given on this pf.